FOR518: Mac and iOS Forensic Analysis and Incident Response

Provided by SANS
Certification
N/A
Qualification level
N/A
Location
Live/Online
Study type
Distance learning
Duration
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Price
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About the course

Digital forensic and incident response investigators have traditionally dealt with Windows machines, but what if they find themselves in front of a new Apple Mac or iDevice? The increasing popularity of Apple devices can be seen everywhere, from coffee shops to corporate boardrooms. Dealing with these devices as an investigator is no longer a niche skill - every analyst must have the core skills necessary to investigate the Apple devices they encounter.

 

The constantly updated FOR518: Mac and iOS Forensic Analysis and Incident Response course provides the techniques and skills necessary to take on any Mac or iOS case without hesitation. The intense hands-on forensic analysis and incident response skills taught in the course will enable analysts to broaden their capabilities and gain the confidence and knowledge to comfortably analyze any Mac or iOS device. In addition to traditional investigations, the course presents intrusion and incident response scenarios to help analysts learn ways to identify and hunt down attackers that have compromised Apple devices.

 

Forensicate Differently!

 

FOR518: Mac and iOS Forensic Analysis and Incident Response will teach you:

 

  1. Mac and iOS Fundamentals: How to analyze and parse the Hierarchical File System (HFS+) and Apple File System (APFS) by hand and recognize the specific domains of the logical file system and Mac-specific file types.
  2. User Activity: How to understand and profile users through their data files and preference configurations.
  3. Advanced Intrusion Analysis and Correlation: How to determine how a system has been used or compromised by using the system and user data files in correlation with system log files.
  4. Apple Technologies: How to understand and analyze many Mac and iOS-specific technologies, including Time Machine, Spotlight, iCloud, Document Versions, FileVault, Continuity, and FaceTime.

 

 

FOR518: Mac and iOS Forensic Analysis and Incident Response aims to train a well-rounded investigator by diving deep into forensic and intrusion analysis of Mac and iOS. The course focuses on topics such as the HFS+ and APFS file systems, Mac-specific data files, tracking of user activity, system configuration, analysis and correlation of Mac logs, Mac applications, and Mac-exclusive technologies. A computer forensic analyst who completes this course will have the skills needed to take on a Mac or iOS forensics case.

 

Course Syllabus

FOR518.1: Mac and iOS Essentials

Overview

This section introduces the student to Mac and iOS essentials such as acquisition, timestamps, logical file system, and disk structure. Acquisition fundamentals are the same with Mac and iOS devices, but there are a few tips and tricks that can be used to successfully and easily collect Mac and iOS systems for analysis. Students comfortable with Windows forensic analysis can easily learn the slight differences on a Mac system - the data are the same, only the format differs.

Exercises

  • Lab Setup
  • BlackLight and Image Mounting
  • Exploring iOS Acquisitions
  • Disks and Partitions

 

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

  • Apple Essentials
    • Mac and iOS Systems
    • Mac Analysis in a Windows World
    • Apple Fundamentals
  • Mac Essentials and Acquisition
    • Mac File System Domains
    • Mac Directory Structures
    • Containers and Sandboxes
    • Acquisition Pitfalls and Considerations
    • Hard Drive, Network, and Memory Acquisition Tools
    • Image Mounting Using Open-Source Utilities
  • iOS Essentials and Acquisition
    • Differences between iOS and macOS
    • Security and Encryption
    • Jailbreaks
    • Acquisition Types and Differences
    • Local and iCloud Backups
    • Tools for Acquisition and Analysis
    • Passcode Bypass and Cracking
  • Disks and Partitions
    • Disk Layout
    • Partition Schemes
    • GPT
    • FileVault
    • Disk Images
    • CoreStorage
    • APFS Containers
    • Bootcamp
    • Fusion Drives

FOR518.2: File Systems & System Triage

Overview

The building blocks of Mac and iOS forensics start with a thorough understanding of the HFS+. Utilizing a hex editor, students will learn the basic principles of the primary file system implemented on MacOS systems. Students will then use that information to look at a variety of great artifacts that use the file system and that are different from other operating systems students have seen in the past. Rounding out the day, students will review Mac and iOS triage data.

Exercises

  • HFS+
  • File System Fun!
  • Mac and iOS Triage

 

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

  • File Systems
    • Overview of HFS+ & APFS
    • Data Structures
    • Manual Parsing
    • APFS Clones
    • APFS Snapshots
    • APFS Benefits and Caveats
    • Tool Output and Caveats
  • Extended Attributes
    • Contents
    • Analysis
    • Tool Support
    • Interesting Attributes
  • File System Events Store Database
    • Usage
    • Parsing with Tools
    • Practical Analysis
  • Spotlight
    • Analysis Methods and Tools
    • Practical Queries
    • Portable Artifacts
    • Artifacts Left Behind by Macs
    • Differences from Various File Systems
  • Mac and iOS Triage
    • OS Version
    • Device Identifying Data
    • System Installation
    • Network Settings
    • Time Zone and Location Services
    • User Accounts
    • Managed Devices
    • Mail and Internet Account Settings
  • Most Recently Used (MRUs)
    • Recent iOS Apps
    • Recent Folders
    • Recent Applications
    • Recent Documents
    • Recent Servers
    • Recent Files
    • Parsing Methods and Tools
    • Alias and Bookmark BLOBs
    • NSKeyed Archiver Plist File Manual Parsing

FOR518.3: User Data, System Configuration, and Log Analysis

Overview

This section contains a wide array of information that can be used to profile and understand how individuals use their computers. The logical Mac file system is made up of four domains: User, Local, System, and Network. The User Domain contains most of the user-related items of forensic interest. This domain consists of user preferences and configurations.

 

The Local and System Domains contain system-specific information such as application installation, system settings and preferences, and system logs. This section details basic system information, GUI preferences, and system application data. A basic analysis of system logs can provide a good understanding of how a system was used or abused. The Network domain is more ethereal and we can find this in many places throughout the course as well as in the logs.

Timeline analysis tells the story of how the system was used. Each entry in a log file has a specific meaning and may be able to tell how the user interacted with the computer. The log entries can be correlated with other data found on the system to create an in-depth timeline that can be used to solve cases quickly and efficiently. Analysis tools and techniques will be used to correlate the data and help the student put the story back together in a coherent and meaningful way.

 

Exercises

  • User Data and System Configuration
  • Log Parsing and Analysis
  • Timeline Analysis and Data Correlation

 

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

  • User Data and System Configuration
    • Bash History
    • Keychains
    • Printing
    • Firewall Settings
    • Sharing Settings
    • Bluetooth
    • Autoruns
    • Application Bundles
    • Software Updates
    • GUI Settings
  • Log Parsing and Analysis
    • Log Basics
    • Log Formats
    • Log Recovery
    • Log Types (Unix, BSM Audit, Apple System Logs (ASL) and Unified)
    • Log Configuration
    • Analysis Methods and Parsing Tools
  • Timeline Analysis and Data Correlation
    • Temporal Context and Timestamps
    • Volume Analysis
    • Temporal Changes
    • System Information and State
    • Network Analysis
    • User Access
    • Privilege Escalation
    • Account Creation/Deletion
    • Software Installation
    • Backup Activity
    • Locational Data

FOR518.4: Application Data Analysis

Overview

In addition to all the configuration and preference information found in the User Domain, the user can interact with a variety of native Apple applications, including the Internet, email, communication, photos, locational data, and others. These data can provide analysts with the who, what, where, why, and how for any investigation.

 

This section will explore the various databases and other files where data are being stored. The student will be able to parse this information by hand without the help of a commercial tool parser.

 

Exercises

  • Safari and Mail
  • Applications - Part I
  • Applications - Part II

 

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

  • Application Permissions
    • Privacy Settings
    • Location Services
  • Native Application Fundamentals
    • Locations
    • Snapshots
  • Safari Browser
    • History
    • Cache
    • Syncing
    • Private Mode
    • Data Retention
  • Apple Mail
    • Locations and Data Access
    • Mail Accounts and Configuration
    • Attachments
    • Metadata
  • Communication
    • iChat/Messages
    • FaceTime
    • SMS
    • iMessage
    • Call History
    • Voicemail
  • Calendar and Reminders
    • Files
    • Database Analysis
  • Contacts
    • Files
    • Database Analysis
  • Notes
    • Files
    • Database Analysis
    • Version Differences
    • Media Analysis
  • Apple Pay, Wallet, Passes
    • Files
    • Database Analysis
  • Photos
    • Files
    • Database Analysis
    • iCloud Syncing
  • Maps
    • Files
    • Database Analysis
    • Caveats
  • Location Data
    • Routine, WiFi, Cellular Locations
    • Files
    • Database Analysis
    • Tools and Parsing
  • Apple Watch
    • Files
    • Capabilities
    • Synced Data
  • Third-Party Apps
    • Locations
    • Analysis Caveats
    • Data Structure
    • Analysis Tools

FOR518.5: Advanced Analysis Topics

Overview

Mac systems implement some technologies that are available only to those with Mac and iOS devices. These include data backup with Time Machine, Document Versions, and iCloud, as well as disk encryption with FileVault. Other advanced topics include data hidden in encrypted containers, live response, Mac intrusion and malware analysis, and Mac memory analysis.

 

Exercises

  • Time Machine and Document Versions
  • Malware and Live Response
  • Memory Analysis, Password Cracking, and Encrypted Containers

 

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

  • Time Machine
    • Backup Settings
    • Backup Volumes
    • Snapshot Analysis
    • Local Snapshots
    • Encrypted Backups
    • Mounting and Analysis
  • Document Versions
    • Versions Metadata
    • Versions Database
    • Generations
    • Chunk Storage
  • iCloud
    • Synced Accounts
    • Mobile Documents
    • Synced Preferences
  • Malware and Intrusion Analysis
    • Intrusion Analysis
    • Java Cache and IDX Files
    • File Quarantine
    • XProtect
    • Gatekeeper
  • Live Response
    • Live Triage Techniques
    • Volatile Data Collection
  • Memory Acquisitions and Analysis
    • Acquisition Tools
    • Analysis Tools
  • Password Cracking and Encrypted Containers
    • Password Shadow Files
    • Cracking Software
    • Keychains
    • FileVault
    • Encrypted Volumes and Disk Images

FOR518.6: Mac Forensics & Incident Response Challenge

Overview

In this final course section, students will put their new Mac forensic skills to the test by running through a real-life scenario with team members.

 

Topics:

  • In-Depth File System Examination
  • File System Timeline Analysis
  • Advanced Computer Forensics Methodology
  • Mac Memory Analysis
  • File System Data Analysis
  • Metadata Analysis
  • Recovering Key Mac Files
  • Volume and Disk Image Analysis
  • Analysis of Mac Technologies including Time Machine, Spotlight, and FileVault
  • Advanced Log Analysis and Correlation
  • iDevice Analysis and iOS Artifacts

 

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Who Should Attend

  • Experienced Digital Forensic Analysts who want to consolidate and expand their understanding of file system forensics and advanced Mac analysis.
  • Law Enforcement Officers, Federal Agents, and Detectives who want to master advanced computer forensics and expand their investigative skill set.
  • Media Exploitation Analysts who need to know where to find the critical data they need from a Mac system.
  • Incident Response Team Members who are responding to complex security incidents/intrusions from sophisticated adversaries and need to know what to do when examining a compromised system.
  • Information Security Professionals who want to become knowledgeable about MacOS and iOS system internals.
  • SANS FOR500, FOR508, FOR526, FOR610, and FOR585 Alumni looking to round out their forensic skills.

What You Will Receive

  • 90-Day trial for BlackBag Technologies BlackLight Forensic Analysis Software
  • The book OS X Incident Response: Scripting and Analysis, 1st Edition
  • Course USBs loaded with case examples, tools, and documentation
  • MP3 audio files of the complete course lecture

Contact the course provider: